investigated the dynamics of the 2014 eruption of Japan’s 3067-meter-high Mount Ontake. The furthest impact crater was located 950 m from the J4 vent in the Jigokudani valley; however, it was reported that ballistic ejecta reached the Ninoike-Honkan cottage approximately 1000 m north-northeast of the vents. As with previous eruptions, the 2014 eruption was considered to be a phreatic eruption, as no fresh magma was contained (Oikawa et al. To accept and hide this message click the cross on the right. Numbers in circles show the location of the areas in Fig. 5a). Ontake Volcano in 2014. The eruption of Mt Ontake produced a huge pyroclastic flow which trapped 250 people on its slopes. The sudden eruption of Mount Ontake on September 27, 2014, led to a tragedy that caused more than 60 fatalities including missing persons. Bull Geol Surv Japan 65:117–127 (in Japanese with English abstract). Just after the beginning of the eruption, very few ballistic ejecta had arrived at the summit, even though the eruption plume had risen above the summit, which suggested that a large amount of ballistic ejecta was expelled from the volcano several tens-of-seconds after the beginning of the eruption. Mount Ontake is a volcano located on the Japanese island of Honshu around 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Nagoya and around 200 km (120 mi) west of Tokyo. Columns of smoke rise from Mount Ontake, a volcano in central Japan, in the late afternoon of 27 September 2014. 8 October 2020, News Seiichi Sakurai, who had been working at one of the huts around the top of the volcano, told public broadcaster NHK that he had tried his best to help people but could not save them all. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Anyone struck by such ejecta could be seriously injured. The volcanic tremors that began 11 min before the eruption were followed by rapid inflation of the edifice 4 min later (JMA 2014). Given the frequency with which phreatic eruptions occur, this study may serve as an important catalyst to understanding, and potentially predicting, similar events around the globe. Cookies policy. Environment Soccer US Politics ... Terrawatch Volcanoes Terrawatch: Mount Ontake eruption Kate Ravilious. 7, Zone C ➈). The topographic base map was produced using a GSI map issued by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. 8b, case B), which is considered to represent the maximum flight duration. 5d). This initial period was characterized by the escape of a vapor phase from the vents, which then caused the explosive eruption phase that generated large amounts of ballistic ejecta via sudden decompression of a hydrothermal reservoir. Takayuki Kaneko. Thus, when hiking on volcanoes that have undergone repeated phreatic eruptions, it is important to minimize the amount of time spent near vents and to be aware of structures that can be used for protection, such as mountain cottages, large rocks, or shelters. Specifically, rescue efforts involved extensive excavation of the deposits near the summit, and the rains disrupted large amounts of tephra and ejected materials during the one-month period when access to the site by volcanologists was strictly prohibited. The size of impact craters and ballistics was also estimated based on the scale obtained here and characteristic objects in the same scene, such as statues, monuments, stone stairs, or rescue workers. on September 27th at 11.52 am. Geology & Geophysics [21] Those four were confirmed to have died. [13] One woman was reported to have died from the eruption.

[12] Later, at least 40 people were reported to be injured, and another 32 were believed to be missing. Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). The cluster of ballistic ejecta shown in Fig. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Because this subterranean rock likely served as a barrier to the upward migration of fluids prior to the start of tilting, argue the authors, the fracturing of this obstacle is ultimately what caused the eruption. statement and 5e); the thickness of this layer was 2–3 mm, and the size of the particles was 1–2 mm. Furthermore, in the event of an eruption, it is important to avoid centers of volcanic activity and to seek shelter during the time window before ballistic ejecta are generated. “He told me it erupted … He said ’It’s over. Google Scholar, Kobayashi T (1980) The 1979 activity of Ontake volcano, report for a grant from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (PI: H. Aoki), 4–12 (in Japanese), Maeno F, Nakada S, Nagai M, Kozono T (2013) Ballistic ejecta and eruption condition of the vulcanian explosion of Shinmoedake volcano, Kyushu, Japan on 1 February, 2011. Programme and abstracts, The Volcanological Society of Japan “Supplement: Emergency Academic Session”. California Privacy Statement, The team then used this information to develop analytical models to characterize the events leading up to the disaster. Global Multi‐Resolution Topography synthesis, The Visual Complexity of Coronal Mass Ejections Follows the Solar Cycle, The First Undeniable Climate Change Deaths, Severe Cyclones May Have Played a Role in the Maya Collapse, How Scientists Can Engage to Solve the Climate Crisis, Global North Is Responsible for 92% of Excess Emissions. “I saw rocks up to probably one metre across [that had been thrown through the air],” he said, adding the search had been difficult and involved digging through ash. 9a was 3200 m, then this photograph is considered to have been taken about 1 min after the beginning of the eruption. Heartbreaking stories have begun to emerge from survivors who made it down the mountain as rolling clouds of volcanic debris swept down its flanks, smothering everything in their path. 2015). By 17:00 the police reported that three people were missing and were believed to be under ash. The mudflow appeared to have effused between 16:02 and 16:44. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. By markhooley | September 16, 2018 | Comments 1 comment. 5a, b). The pyroclastic flow moved away from the vent in a southwesterly direction along the Jigokudani valley for approximately 2.5 km, as this area was lower than the surrounding areas (Fig. Distribution of impact craters generated by ballistic ejecta. Sadly 48 hikers died and 69 were reported injured from gas inhilation and impact with rock and ash bound together in pyroclastic flows.

PubMed Google Scholar. Another person was rescued from under the volcanic ash, but remained unconscious. For example, ballistic ejecta generated by the 2011 Shinmoedake eruption traveled 3.4 km and had initial velocities of 240–290 m/s (Maeno et al. Because the Jigokudani valley extends along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis, and because the vents are located on the valley floor, it is possible that the valley walls acted as barriers to ejecta, preventing ballistics from being ejected far beyond the valley walls along both sides of the valley. Video footage taken by a hiker who was caught in moving pyroclastic flow ( revealed that the flow consisted of aggregated ash particles blowing laterally as in a snow storm.

The pyroclastic flow travelled about 2.5 km along the Jigokudani valley at an average speed of 32 km/h.

Ontake volcanic eruption Japan 2014 On Saturday 27 September 2014, at 11.52am local time, Mt.Ontake, an active volcano on Honshu Island in Japan, erupted without warning. Hundreds of firefighters, police and troops remained at the peak on Monday, with helicopters flying overhead, despite the gases and steam billowing from the ruptured crater of the 3,067-metre (10,121ft) volcano. On Saturday 27 September 2014, at 11.52am local time, Mt.Ontake, an active volcano on Honshu Island in Japan, erupted without warning.

25 September 2020, News In: Yamatokeikokusha (ed) Document of the Ontake eruption. ... Mt. Mount Ontake erupted for the first time in recorded history in 1979 (Kobayashi 1980), and since then, small phreatic eruptions occurred in 1991 and 2007 (Oikawa 2008; Oikawa et al. a Distribution of the eruption vents on September 28, 2014. b Eruption vents in the Jigokudani valley at 14:13 on September 27 and c at 16:44 on September 27. Ontake volcano, a perfect day turns deadly for hikers, Here's The Science Of The Violent Eruption That Stranded Japanese Hikers, Japanese volcano eruption survivors tell heartbreaking stories of victims, Japan eruption practically undetectable in advance, Why Japan’s deadly Ontake eruption could not be predicted, Volcanoes may be next obstacle for Japan’s atomic power industry, Mount Ontake death toll rises to 47, making it Japan’s worst volcanic disaster in almost 90 years, Alert level system applied to 30 volcanoes, Early Warning of Volcanic Eruption in Japan (PDF document), LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS JAPAN PART 3: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS (Powerpoint document), Natural disasters of 2011: From the earthquake & tsunami in Japan to the largest recorded tornado outbreak in history, Hiroshima landslide in pictures: Many killed as hillside collapses in Japan, Japan's Okinawa lashed by Typhoon Neoguri, Top 10 Natural Disasters in Japanese History. 12 October 2020, Science Update Based on the time at which the dense ashy plume that covered the cottage at the summit had disappeared (Kaito 2014), pyroclastic flows are considered to have been generated intermittently until around 12:20 on September 27. Rescuers were hampered by the eruption, and criticism followed over the lack of warning given to people before the eruption. Terri Cook Ontake as search resumes, toll at 54", "Death Toll from Mount Ontake Eruption Rises to 56", "Ontake victims mourned a month after eruption as tourism industry scrambles to recover", "Bereaved families of Mt. a Growing eruption plume photographed immediately after the beginning of eruption. 2015). At the summit of Ichinoike, which was covered by a thick layer of ashy deposits, sun cracks developed on the surface (Fig. 16 October 2020, Feature Mount Ontake located on the Japanese island of Honshu about 100 kilometers northeast of Nagoya and about 200 km southwest of Tokyo. According to a hiker who sought shelter in the cottage at the summit, the generation of ejecta continued intermittently for about 1 h (Kato 2014). Instead of actual ballistic ejecta, which are difficult to identify directly, the distribution of ballistic ejecta was inferred based on the distribution of impact craters in the photographs taken on September 28 (Figs. [25] The victims of the Mount Ontake eruption were mourned on October 27, as authorities and residents marked a month since the volcano killed 57 people and left six others missing. Earth Planet Sp 68, 72 (2016). Monthly commentary documents on volcanic activity. There were already many hikers walking up to the summit.

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